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Vertebroplasty for Vertebral Compression Fractures: A Guide to Understanding Surgical Procedures

Understanding Vertebral Compression Fractures

Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are a common condition, especially among older adults. These fractures occur when the vertebral body, the block-like structure that makes up the spine, collapses or becomes compressed. VCFs can cause severe pain, limited mobility, and a decrease in overall quality of life. While conservative treatments such as pain medication and physical therapy can help manage the symptoms, some cases may require surgical intervention. One such surgical procedure is vertebroplasty. In this article, we will explore the details of vertebroplasty for vertebral compression fractures, including its purpose, procedure, benefits, risks, and recovery process.

The Purpose of Vertebroplasty

Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that aims to stabilize the fractured vertebra and relieve pain. The procedure involves injecting a special cement-like material called polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) into the fractured vertebra. The PMMA hardens quickly, providing immediate stability to the fractured bone. By stabilizing the vertebra, vertebroplasty can help alleviate pain and improve the patient’s ability to perform daily activities.

The Procedure of Vertebroplasty

Before undergoing vertebroplasty, patients will typically undergo a thorough evaluation, including imaging tests such as X-rays or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, to determine the location and severity of the compression fracture. The procedure itself is usually performed under local anesthesia, meaning the patient is awake but the area being treated is numbed.

During the procedure, the surgeon will make a small incision in the skin and insert a needle into the fractured vertebra under the guidance of fluoroscopy, a real-time X-ray imaging technique. Once the needle is in the correct position, the PMMA cement is injected into the vertebra. The cement fills the spaces within the fractured bone, providing stability and support.

After the cement is injected, the needle is removed, and the incision is closed with sutures or adhesive strips. The entire procedure typically takes about one hour per treated vertebra.

The Benefits of Vertebroplasty

Vertebroplasty offers several benefits for patients with vertebral compression fractures:

  • Pain relief: One of the primary goals of vertebroplasty is to alleviate pain caused by the compression fracture. Studies have shown that vertebroplasty can significantly reduce pain and improve the patient’s quality of life.
  • Improved mobility: By stabilizing the fractured vertebra, vertebroplasty can help restore mobility and function. This allows patients to perform daily activities with less difficulty and discomfort.
  • Reduced need for pain medication: After undergoing vertebroplasty, many patients experience a decrease in their reliance on pain medication. This can have positive effects on their overall health and well-being.
  • Quick recovery: Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure, which means it typically requires a shorter recovery time compared to traditional open surgeries. Most patients can resume their normal activities within a few days to weeks after the procedure.

The Risks and Complications of Vertebroplasty

While vertebroplasty is generally considered safe, like any surgical procedure, it carries some risks and potential complications. It is essential for patients to be aware of these risks before making a decision about undergoing vertebroplasty:

  • Infection: There is a small risk of infection at the site of the incision. Patients should follow proper wound care instructions to minimize this risk.
  • Bleeding: Although rare, excessive bleeding can occur during or after the procedure. Patients who are taking blood-thinning medications may be at a higher risk of bleeding complications.
  • Nerve damage: In rare cases, the needle used during vertebroplasty may injure nearby nerves, leading to neurological complications such as numbness, tingling, or weakness.
  • Leakage of cement: In some instances, the PMMA cement may leak out of the fractured vertebra and enter the surrounding tissues. This can cause irritation or damage to nearby structures.
  • Allergic reaction: Although extremely rare, some individuals may have an allergic reaction to the PMMA cement used in vertebroplasty. It is crucial to inform the healthcare team of any known allergies before the procedure.

The Recovery Process after Vertebroplasty

After undergoing vertebroplasty, patients will typically be monitored for a short period in a recovery area before being discharged. The recovery process may vary depending on the individual and the number of vertebrae treated. However, here are some general guidelines:

  • Pain management: Patients may experience some discomfort or soreness at the site of the injection. Over-the-counter pain medications or prescribed pain relievers can help manage this pain.
  • Activity restrictions: While patients are encouraged to resume their normal activities gradually, they may be advised to avoid strenuous activities, heavy lifting, or bending for a certain period after the procedure.
  • Follow-up appointments: Patients will typically have a follow-up appointment with their healthcare provider to assess their progress and ensure proper healing. Additional imaging tests may be performed to evaluate the stability of the treated vertebrae.
  • Physical therapy: In some cases, patients may be referred to physical therapy to help improve strength, flexibility, and overall function. Physical therapy can also aid in preventing future fractures.


Vertebroplasty is a surgical procedure used to treat vertebral compression fractures. It aims to stabilize the fractured vertebra and relieve pain. The procedure involves injecting a cement-like material called PMMA into the fractured bone. Vertebroplasty offers several benefits, including pain relief, improved mobility, reduced need for pain medication, and a quick recovery. However, like any surgical procedure, it carries some risks and potential complications, such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, cement leakage, and allergic reactions. The recovery process after vertebroplasty involves pain management, activity restrictions, follow-up appointments, and possibly physical therapy. It is important for patients to discuss the potential risks and benefits with their healthcare provider to make an informed decision about undergoing vertebroplasty.

Overall, vertebroplasty can be an effective treatment option for individuals with vertebral compression fractures, providing them with pain relief and improved quality of life. However, each patient’s case is unique, and it is crucial to consult with a healthcare professional to determine the most appropriate treatment approach.

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