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The Impact of Internal Fixation on Mobility and Flexibility

Internal fixation is a surgical procedure commonly used to treat fractures and other bone injuries. It involves the use of implants, such as plates, screws, or rods, to stabilize the fractured bone and promote healing. While internal fixation is highly effective in restoring bone stability and facilitating the healing process, it can have a significant impact on mobility and flexibility. This article explores the various ways in which internal fixation affects a person’s ability to move and perform daily activities, as well as the potential long-term consequences of this procedure.

The Role of Internal Fixation in Fracture Treatment

Fractures are a common occurrence, and they can range from minor hairline cracks to severe breaks that completely separate the bone. When a fracture occurs, the primary goal of treatment is to realign the bone fragments and provide stability to promote healing. Internal fixation is one of the most commonly used techniques to achieve this.

During internal fixation, the surgeon uses specialized instruments to reposition the fractured bone fragments and then secures them in place using implants. These implants can be made of various materials, such as stainless steel, titanium, or bioresorbable materials. The choice of implant depends on factors such as the location and severity of the fracture, as well as the patient’s overall health.

Once the implants are in place, they provide stability to the fractured bone, allowing the body’s natural healing processes to take over. Over time, the bone heals and remodels around the implants, eventually restoring its strength and integrity.

Immediate Impact on Mobility and Flexibility

While internal fixation is essential for promoting bone healing, it can have an immediate impact on a person’s mobility and flexibility. The presence of implants can restrict the range of motion in the affected joint or limb, making it difficult for the patient to move or perform certain activities.

For example, if internal fixation is performed on a fractured wrist, the patient may experience limited wrist movement and difficulty performing tasks that require fine motor skills, such as writing or typing. Similarly, internal fixation of a fractured hip can restrict hip movement and make it challenging to walk or climb stairs.

The extent of the impact on mobility and flexibility depends on various factors, including the location and severity of the fracture, the type of implant used, and the surgical technique employed. In some cases, physical therapy may be necessary to regain strength and range of motion after internal fixation.

Long-Term Consequences of Internal Fixation

While internal fixation is generally successful in promoting bone healing and restoring stability, it can have long-term consequences for mobility and flexibility. One of the most common issues is the development of stiffness in the affected joint or limb.

Stiffness occurs when the soft tissues surrounding the fracture site, such as muscles, tendons, and ligaments, become tight and lose their flexibility. This can make it difficult to move the joint or limb freely and may result in pain or discomfort.

In some cases, the stiffness may be permanent, especially if the fracture involves a joint. This can significantly impact a person’s ability to perform daily activities and may require ongoing physical therapy or other interventions to manage.

Another potential long-term consequence of internal fixation is the development of arthritis in the affected joint. Arthritis is a condition characterized by inflammation and degeneration of the joint, leading to pain, swelling, and reduced mobility.

Research has shown that the presence of implants can increase the risk of developing arthritis in the adjacent joint. The exact mechanisms behind this association are not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to factors such as altered joint mechanics and increased stress on the joint surfaces.

Strategies to Improve Mobility and Flexibility

Despite the potential impact of internal fixation on mobility and flexibility, there are strategies that can help improve these outcomes. Physical therapy is often a crucial component of the rehabilitation process after internal fixation.

A skilled physical therapist can design a personalized exercise program to help restore range of motion, strengthen the surrounding muscles, and improve overall mobility. This may involve a combination of stretching exercises, strengthening exercises, and functional training.

In addition to physical therapy, other interventions may be beneficial in improving mobility and flexibility. These can include:

  • Occupational therapy: Occupational therapists specialize in helping individuals regain the ability to perform daily activities, such as dressing, bathing, and cooking. They can provide strategies and adaptations to overcome any limitations caused by internal fixation.
  • Assistive devices: Depending on the location and severity of the fracture, the use of assistive devices such as crutches, canes, or walkers may be necessary to aid in mobility.
  • Pain management: Pain and discomfort can significantly impact mobility and flexibility. Effective pain management strategies, such as medication or alternative therapies like acupuncture, can help improve overall function.
  • Adaptive equipment: In some cases, the use of adaptive equipment, such as modified utensils or tools, can help individuals with limited mobility perform specific tasks more easily.


Internal fixation is a valuable surgical technique for treating fractures and promoting bone healing. However, it can have a significant impact on a person’s mobility and flexibility. The presence of implants can restrict range of motion and lead to long-term consequences such as stiffness and arthritis.

Fortunately, there are strategies to improve mobility and flexibility after internal fixation, including physical therapy, occupational therapy, and the use of assistive devices. By implementing these interventions, individuals can regain function and improve their quality of life.

It is important for healthcare professionals to consider the potential impact of internal fixation on mobility and flexibility when planning treatment and rehabilitation strategies. By addressing these concerns proactively, patients can achieve the best possible outcomes and minimize any long-term limitations.

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