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Medial Epicondylitis: The Road to Recovery After Surgery

Medial epicondylitis, also known as golfer’s elbow, is a condition that causes pain and inflammation in the tendons on the inside of the elbow. It is a common injury among athletes who participate in activities that involve repetitive wrist and forearm movements, such as golf, tennis, and weightlifting. While non-surgical treatments are often effective in managing the symptoms of medial epicondylitis, there are cases where surgery may be necessary to achieve full recovery. In this article, we will explore the road to recovery after surgery for medial epicondylitis, including the rehabilitation process, potential complications, and tips for a successful recovery.

The Surgical Procedure

When conservative treatments fail to provide relief, surgery may be recommended for individuals with severe or chronic medial epicondylitis. The surgical procedure for medial epicondylitis typically involves removing the damaged tendon tissue and repairing any tears or fraying. The surgery can be performed using either an open or arthroscopic technique, depending on the severity of the condition and the surgeon’s preference.

During an open surgery, a small incision is made on the inside of the elbow to access the affected tendons. The surgeon then removes the damaged tissue and repairs any tears using sutures or anchors. In arthroscopic surgery, small incisions are made, and a tiny camera is inserted to visualize the inside of the elbow joint. Specialized instruments are used to remove the damaged tissue and repair the tendon.

After the surgery is complete, the incisions are closed with sutures or surgical staples, and a bandage or splint is applied to immobilize the elbow. The patient is then taken to a recovery room to wake up from anesthesia and monitored for any immediate post-operative complications.

Rehabilitation Process

Rehabilitation plays a crucial role in the recovery process after surgery for medial epicondylitis. The goal of rehabilitation is to restore strength, flexibility, and function to the affected elbow and forearm. The rehabilitation process typically involves a combination of physical therapy exercises, pain management techniques, and gradual return to activities.

1. Early Stage Rehabilitation

During the early stage of rehabilitation, the focus is on controlling pain and inflammation, promoting healing, and maintaining range of motion in the elbow joint. The following techniques and exercises may be included:

  • Ice therapy: Applying ice packs to the elbow several times a day can help reduce swelling and relieve pain.
  • Compression: Wearing a compression bandage or sleeve can provide support and reduce swelling.
  • Elevation: Keeping the affected arm elevated above heart level can help reduce swelling.
  • Gentle range of motion exercises: Performing gentle exercises to move the elbow joint within a pain-free range can help maintain flexibility.
  • Strengthening exercises for the forearm muscles: As pain and swelling subside, specific exercises targeting the forearm muscles can be introduced to gradually rebuild strength.

2. Intermediate Stage Rehabilitation

Once pain and inflammation are under control, the focus of rehabilitation shifts towards gradually increasing strength, endurance, and functional activities. The following techniques and exercises may be included:

  • Progressive resistance exercises: Using resistance bands or weights, the patient gradually increases the load on the forearm muscles to improve strength.
  • Stretching exercises: Stretching exercises for the forearm muscles and tendons help improve flexibility and prevent stiffness.
  • Functional exercises: Specific exercises that mimic the movements involved in the patient’s sport or daily activities are introduced to improve coordination and functional abilities.
  • Activity modification: The patient is advised to modify their activities to avoid repetitive or excessive stress on the elbow joint.

3. Advanced Stage Rehabilitation

In the advanced stage of rehabilitation, the focus is on returning to full functional activities and preventing future injuries. The following techniques and exercises may be included:

  • Sport-specific training: Athletes may undergo sport-specific training to regain the necessary skills and conditioning for their sport.
  • Gradual return to activities: The patient gradually resumes their sport or other activities, starting with low-intensity and gradually increasing the intensity and duration.
  • Preventive measures: The patient is educated on proper technique, equipment, and warm-up exercises to prevent future injuries.
  • Long-term maintenance: Regular exercise, stretching, and strength training are recommended to maintain the health and function of the elbow joint.

Potential Complications

While surgery for medial epicondylitis is generally safe and effective, there are potential complications that patients should be aware of. These complications are rare but can occur in some cases. It is important to discuss the potential risks and complications with the surgeon before undergoing surgery. Some potential complications include:

  • Infection: There is a risk of infection at the surgical site, which may require antibiotics or additional treatment.
  • Nerve or blood vessel damage: During surgery, there is a small risk of damaging nearby nerves or blood vessels, which can lead to numbness, weakness, or other complications.
  • Stiffness or loss of range of motion: In some cases, the elbow joint may become stiff after surgery, requiring additional rehabilitation to regain full range of motion.
  • Recurrence of symptoms: Despite surgery, there is a small chance that the symptoms of medial epicondylitis may recur in the future.

Tips for a Successful Recovery

Recovering from surgery for medial epicondylitis requires patience, dedication, and adherence to the rehabilitation program. Here are some tips to ensure a successful recovery:

  • Follow the surgeon’s instructions: It is important to carefully follow the post-operative instructions provided by the surgeon, including medication schedules, wound care, and activity restrictions.
  • Attend all rehabilitation sessions: Regular attendance at physical therapy sessions is crucial for a successful recovery. The therapist will guide you through the appropriate exercises and monitor your progress.
  • Communicate with your healthcare team: If you experience any unusual symptoms or have concerns during your recovery, it is important to communicate with your surgeon or physical therapist.
  • Gradually increase activities: It is important to gradually increase activities and avoid overexertion. Pushing too hard or returning to activities too quickly can delay the healing process or lead to reinjury.
  • Take care of your overall health: Eating a balanced diet, getting enough rest, and managing stress can contribute to a faster and smoother recovery.


Medial epicondylitis, or golfer’s elbow, can be a debilitating condition that affects athletes and individuals who engage in repetitive wrist and forearm movements. While non-surgical treatments are often effective, surgery may be necessary in severe or chronic cases. The road to recovery after surgery for medial epicondylitis involves a comprehensive rehabilitation process that focuses on pain management, range of motion, strength, and functional activities. It is important to follow the surgeon’s instructions, attend rehabilitation sessions, and communicate with the healthcare team for a successful recovery. With proper care and dedication, individuals can regain full function and return to their desired activities.

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