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External Fixation in Phalangeal Fractures: A Comprehensive Guide


Phalangeal fractures, or fractures of the bones in the fingers and toes, are a common injury that can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, sports injuries, or accidents. These fractures can cause significant pain, swelling, and functional impairment, making it essential to provide appropriate treatment to promote healing and restore normal function. One treatment option for phalangeal fractures is external fixation, a technique that involves the use of external devices to stabilize the fractured bones and facilitate healing. This comprehensive guide will explore the various aspects of external fixation in phalangeal fractures, including its indications, techniques, complications, and outcomes.

Indications for External Fixation

External fixation is indicated in certain cases of phalangeal fractures where the fracture pattern, soft tissue injury, or patient factors make it a suitable treatment option. The following are some common indications for external fixation:

  • Comminuted fractures: When the fracture involves multiple bone fragments, external fixation can provide stability and support for the fractured bones.
  • Open fractures: In cases where the fracture is associated with an open wound or significant soft tissue injury, external fixation can be used to stabilize the fracture while allowing for wound care and preventing infection.
  • Complex fractures: Fractures that involve joint surfaces or have associated tendon or ligament injuries may require external fixation to achieve optimal alignment and stability.
  • Delayed presentation: In some cases, patients may present with a phalangeal fracture that has already started to heal in a malaligned position. External fixation can be used to correct the alignment and promote further healing.

Techniques of External Fixation

There are several techniques of external fixation that can be used in the management of phalangeal fractures. The choice of technique depends on various factors, including the location and type of fracture, patient factors, and surgeon preference. The following are some commonly used techniques:

Kirschner Wire Fixation

Kirschner wire fixation involves the insertion of thin wires, known as Kirschner wires or K-wires, into the fractured bones to provide stability. The wires are inserted through the skin and into the bone, and then connected to an external frame or a splint. Kirschner wire fixation is commonly used for simple fractures or as a temporary measure before definitive treatment.

External Fixator with Pins

This technique involves the insertion of pins into the fractured bones, which are then connected to an external frame or a splint. The pins provide stability and allow for controlled movement of the fractured bones during the healing process. External fixators with pins are often used for more complex fractures or cases where precise alignment is required.

Mini External Fixator

The mini external fixator is a variation of the external fixator technique that uses smaller pins and a compact frame. It is particularly useful for fractures in the fingers, where a bulky external fixator may interfere with hand function. The mini external fixator provides stability while allowing for early mobilization of the fingers.

Circular External Fixator

The circular external fixator consists of multiple rings connected by rods or wires, forming a circular frame around the fractured bones. This technique allows for precise control of alignment and stability and is often used for complex fractures or cases requiring gradual correction of deformities.

Complications of External Fixation

While external fixation is generally a safe and effective treatment option for phalangeal fractures, it is not without its complications. It is important for both patients and healthcare providers to be aware of these potential complications to ensure timely management and minimize their impact. The following are some common complications associated with external fixation:


External fixation devices create an open pathway for bacteria to enter the body, increasing the risk of infection. Proper sterile technique during the insertion of pins or wires, as well as regular wound care, can help reduce the risk of infection. In case of infection, prompt treatment with antibiotics and, in some cases, removal of the external fixator may be necessary.

Pin Tract Problems

Pins or wires used in external fixation can cause irritation or infection at the insertion sites, leading to pin tract problems. These problems can range from mild discomfort to severe infections. Regular cleaning and dressing of the pin sites, as well as proper pin care instructions for the patient, can help prevent pin tract problems.

Joint Stiffness

External fixation can restrict joint movement during the healing process, leading to joint stiffness. Physical therapy and early mobilization are essential to prevent or minimize joint stiffness. In some cases, additional procedures such as arthrolysis may be required to regain full joint function.

Malunion or Nonunion

If the fractured bones do not heal in the correct alignment or fail to heal at all, malunion or nonunion can occur. This can result in functional impairment and may require further intervention, such as corrective surgery or bone grafting, to achieve proper healing.

Outcomes of External Fixation

The outcomes of external fixation in phalangeal fractures can vary depending on various factors, including the type and severity of the fracture, patient compliance, and the skill of the surgeon. However, several studies have reported positive outcomes with the use of external fixation in the management of phalangeal fractures.

A study published in the Journal of Hand Surgery examined the outcomes of external fixation in 100 patients with phalangeal fractures. The study found that external fixation resulted in good or excellent outcomes in 85% of the patients, with a low rate of complications. Another study published in the Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma reported similar findings, with external fixation leading to satisfactory outcomes in the majority of patients.

One of the advantages of external fixation is its ability to allow for early mobilization and functional recovery. Unlike other treatment options, such as casting or internal fixation, external fixation provides stability while allowing controlled movement of the fractured bones. This early mobilization can help prevent joint stiffness and promote faster recovery of hand function.


External fixation is a valuable treatment option for phalangeal fractures, offering stability, early mobilization, and good outcomes in the majority of cases. It is important for healthcare providers to carefully assess the indications for external fixation and choose the appropriate technique based on the fracture pattern and patient factors. Regular monitoring and prompt management of complications can help ensure successful outcomes. By understanding the various aspects of external fixation in phalangeal fractures, both patients and healthcare providers can make informed decisions and optimize the treatment of these common injuries.

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